英语学习:高中阅读技巧培养

2019-09-18 08:55:32

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根据上下文猜测词义
  利用定义推知词义
  利用重述推知词义
  利用常识或经验推知词义
  利用搭配关系推测词义
  利用同义关系猜测词义
  利用反义或对比关系猜测词义
  根据所举示例猜测词义
  根据上下文猜测熟悉词语的新含义
  实义词词意猜测
  代词指代理解
  单句理解
  弄清句子的类型和结构
  简单句
  并列句
  复合句
  抓住句中的难点
  不要望文生义
  段落理解
  有主题句的段落
  处于段首
  处于段尾
  处于段中
  前后呼应
  暗含其中
  无主题句的段落
  阅读理解的考查方向
  综合分析理解题型
  标题选择
  中心主旨概括
  判断推断题
  直接推断题
  含蓄推断题
  推断作者的态度和识别语气
  推断文章的内涵和写作目的
  推断文章的来源
  推断上下文的主题
  ① 从文章结构中找线索
  ② 从文章头尾中找线索
  数字计算
  图形辨析
  If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Dependi
  ng on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to asgroupsor managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.?
  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God." came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."
  If you are part of thesgroupswhich you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.?
  If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.?
  Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.??
  1. To make your humor work, you should?
  [A]take advantage of different kinds of audience.
  [B]make fun of the disorganized people.
  [C]address different problems to different people.
  [D]show sympathy for your listeners.
  2. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are?
  [A]impolite to new arrivals.
  [B]very conscious of their godlike role.
  [C]entitled to some privileges.
  [D]very busy even during lunch hours.
  3. It can be inferred from the text that public services?
  [A]have benefited many people.
  [B]are the focus of public attention.
  [C]are an inappropriate subject for humor.
  [D]have often been the laughing stock.
  4. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered?
  [A]in well-worded language.
  [B]as awkwardly as possible.
  [C]in exaggerated statement.
  [D]as casually as possible.
  5. The best title for the text may be?
  [A]Use Humor Effectively.
  [B]Various Kinds of Humor.
  [C]Add Humor to Speech.
  [D]Different Humor Strategies.
  第一部分 文章背景
  [内容分类]人文科学--说明文
  作为2002年第一篇文章,本文难度不大,是一种指南性的说明文,观点明确,论述清晰,旨在教会读者如何使用幽默。
  第二部分 语言点详解
  1. identify认出;识别
  [大纲词汇] identify v.认出;识别
  [衍生词汇] identification n认明;识别;身份证明,简写为ID
  [经典例句] A reasonable man can identify the best method of solving the problem.
  2. sympathy同情
  [大纲词汇] n同情;体谅;
  [衍生词汇]词缀sym-表示"同,相同的"
  sympathetic adj同情的;表示同情的;感到同情的
  antipathy n.憎恶,反感
  [经典例句] Thomas Hardy shows his great sympathy towards his characters.
  3. alternatively做为选择,或者
  [大纲词汇] alternative adj & n随便一个的;二者择一;选择
  [用法解析] alternatively可以用在写作中,用来引导另外一个平行的观点或意见。
  4. St. Peter圣彼得
  [用法解析] St.是Saint的缩写,是人们对耶酥基督的门徒的尊称。
  5. accommodation住处,住所
  6. [大纲词汇] accommodation n.住处,住所
  [衍生词汇] accommodate vt.供应,供给,使适应,调节
  [经典例句] The university doesn't provide accommodation for the first year students.
  7. inedible不可食用的
  [大纲词汇] edible adj适合食用的;可食用的
  [经典例句] Although those mushrooms look very appetizing, they are really inedible.
  8. canteen食堂,员工餐厅
  [大纲词汇] canteen n.食堂,餐厅
  [记忆方法]这个词很好记,它的发音与汉语的餐厅差不多。
  9. appropriate正确的;适当的
  [大纲词汇] appropriate adj正确的;合适的;适当的
  [经典例句] To attend the dinner party, you should choose the appropriate dressing.
  10. notorious,声名狼藉的;臭名昭彰的
  [大纲词汇] adj臭名远扬的,臭名昭彰的
  [联想记忆] notorious一词是个不折不扣的贬义词,和它意思相近,表示"名气很大的"英文词很多,比如:famous, well-known, renowned, celebrated都是褒义,而贬义的只有infamous一词。
  11. resent愤恨,怨恨
  [大纲词汇] resent v.愤恨,怨恨,愤慨
  [经典例句] The Chairman resents all the unfair comments imposed on him.
  12. disparaging蔑视的,轻视的
  [大纲词汇] disparaging adj.蔑视的,毁谤的,轻视的
  [经典例句] Please don't make any disparaging remarks.
  13. scapegoat n替罪羊,代人受过者
  [联想记忆]记住goat这个词。在英文中与"羊"有关的还有black sheep,表示败类,害群之马
  14. off-the-cuff未经准备的;即席的;随意的
  [经典例句] Insgroupsto show your humor, you must make some off-the-cuff humorous remarks.
  15. exaggeration夸张;夸大
  [大纲词汇] exaggerate vt, vi夸张;夸大
  [经典例句] The managers exaggerate the difficulties of the situation to get additional financial support from the borad.
  16. understatement (一种修辞方法)故意的轻描淡写
  第三部分 难句解析
  1. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view.
  [结构剖析]:该句是一个复杂单句,句子的主语是your humor,后面有两个平行的谓语must be和should help它们后面分别有其宾语。其中should help后面的宾语是不定式to show,而它的宾语比较复杂,是两个并列的宾语从句:that you are one of them和that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view,中间用or连接
  [阅读重点]:本句结构比较简明,只需注意show them后面是两个并列的宾语从句就可以了。后面的宾语从句中有个很有用的词组in sympathy with,表示同情,同意,赞同。
  [参考译文]:你的幽默必须和听众相关,而且能够帮你显示你是他们中的一分子,或者你了解他们所处的情形且同意他们的观点。
  2. If you are part of thesgroupswhich you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties
  [结构剖析]:if引导了一个条件从句,而后面的主句是两个子句构成的并列句。在第一个字句you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you中又有一个定语从句which are common to all of you来修饰the experiences and problems,而后面的子句的结构是一个it is adj for sb to do sth的结构。
  [阅读重点]:要看懂本句,重点在于要把后面的两个子句断开,并分别理解。
  [参考译文]:如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置来了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。
  3. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner.
  [结构剖析]:该句是一个祈使句。谓语是include,宾语是remarks,后面有一个定语从句修饰它
  [阅读重点]:注意该句的特性。另外注意off-the-cuff的意思
  [参考译文]:你应该(在讲话中)还包括几个随意的和似乎是脱口而出的评论,这些评论应该以一种放松自然的方式表达出来。
  4. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark
  [结构剖析]:整句可以看成是由so连接的并列句,前后有一定的因果关系。前面的子句是一个强调结构,而后面又是一个祈使句,其谓语动词是speak和remember。而remember后面又是一个很长的宾语从句。
  [阅读重点]:要理解前后的因果关系。
  [参考译文]:经常是表达方式会使听众发笑,因此要讲得慢一点,而且记住抬抬眉毛或作出一个不相信的表情都能帮你显示你是在讲笑话。

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